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Collard greens
Collard greens

What's New and Beneficial About Collard Greens

  • In a 2011 study by the Economic Research Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, collard greens turned out to be cheaper than many of their fellow cruciferous vegetables in terms of average U.S. price per edible cup (chopped and cooked). Cauliflower florets, turnip greens, mustard greens, broccoli florets, and kale showed up as being more expensive than collard greens after being trimmed to their edible portion and cooked. Among the cruciferous vegetables, only cabbage turned out to be less expensive than collard greens on a per cup basis (chopped and cooked). The affordable nature of collard greens is great news in terms of nutrition, since this cruciferous vegetable achieves 6 rankings of excellent, 4 rankings of very good, and 11 rankings of good in our WHFoods rating system!
  • In a study on indigenous vegetable intake in the southeastern United States, collard greens were determined to provide the 4th greatest amount of antioxidant capacity related to overall dietary intake among 12 nutrient-rich foods in the study. In these research findings, collard greens ranked 4th behind sweet potato greens, mustard greens, and kale. Alongside of the four nutrient-rich greens listed above, this regional study also examined the antioxidant contributions of purple hull peas, rutabagas, eggplant, purslane, butter beans, butter peas, and green onions.
  • Intake of collard greens has long been known to have the capacity to lower blood cholesterol levels, including blood levels of LDL cholesterol. But a recent study on cruciferous vegetables has taken our understanding of collards and cholesterol to a new level. In this study, researchers focused on the ability of fiber-like components in vegetables to bind together with bile acids. (When bound together with fiber-like components, bile acids are more readily excreted from our body, and following their excretion, our cells break apart some cholesterol into its component bile acids as a way of replacing the bound bile acids that got excreted. In this study, lab samples were obtained from eight steamed vegetables. These eight vegetables were: collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, spinach, green bell pepper, and cabbage. The researchers then measured the ability of all eight vegetable samples to bind bile acids, and the winner of this measurement process was collard greens. In other words, steamed collard greens did a better job of binding together with bile acids than any of the seven other steamed vegetables. In this study, it is also worth noting that both raw collard greens and steamed collard greens showed bile acid binding ability, but steamed collard greens did a better job in this respect.
  • We get unique health benefits from collard greens in the form of cancer protection. The cancer-preventive properties of collard greens may be largely related to four specific glucosinolates found in this cruciferous vegetable: glucoraphanin, sinigrin, gluconasturtiian, and glucotropaeolin. Each of these glucosinolates can be converted into a corresponding isothiocyanate (ITC) that can help lower our cancer risk by supporting our body's detox and anti-inflammatory systems.
  • A second study from the southeastern region of the United States has recently caught our attention with respect to collard greens. In this study, researchers determined that among 35 commonly eaten foods in this geographical area, collards came in second (behind chicken) as the most preferred food among older adults. This very high ranking of collard greens took place despite the presence of survey choices like cake and ice cream! We believe that the results of this study are totally in keeping with our experience at WHFoods. Although some people may have preconceptions about the taste and texture of certain foods, and may be convinced that a food like collard greens could never become one of their favorites, we believe that their minds might change after preparing and sitting down to a serving of one of our collard greens recipes, such as our 5-Minute Collard Greens with Sunflower Seeds. That's because many of our website visitors have taken the time to write to us and tell us about exactly such an experience with one or more of our WHFoods.

WHFoods Recommendations

You'll want to include collard greens as one of the cruciferous vegetables you eat on a regular basis if you want to receive the fantastic health benefits provided by the cruciferous vegetable family. At a minimum, we recommend 3/4 cup of cruciferous vegetables on a daily basis. This amount is equivalent to approximately 5 cups per week. A more optimal intake amount would be 1-1/2 cups per day, or about 10 cups per week. You can use our Veggie Advisor for help in figuring out your best cruciferous vegetable options.

It is very important not to overcook collard greens. Like other cruciferous vegetables overcooked collard greens will begin to emit the unpleasant sulfur smell associated with overcooking. To help collard greens to cook more quickly, evenly slice the leaves into 1/2-inch slices and the stems into 1/4-inch pieces. Let them sit for at least 5 minutes and then steam for 5 minutes Serve with our Mediterranean Dressing. See 5-Minute Collard Greens.

Collard Greens, chopped, cooked
1.00 cup
(190.00 grams)
Calories: 63
GI: very low

NutrientDRI/DV

 vitamin K858%




 fiber30%

 calcium27%

 choline17%



 iron12%

 copper11%



 protein10%



 folate8%






This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Collard greens provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Collard greens can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Collard greens, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.

Health Benefits

Unlike broccoli and kale and cabbage, you won't find many research studies devoted to the specific health benefits of collard greens. However, collard greens are sometimes included in a longer list of cruciferous vegetables that are lumped together and examined for the health benefits they provide. Based on a very small number of studies looking specifically at collard greens, and a larger number of studies looking at cruciferous vegetables as a group (and including collard greens on the list of vegetables studied), cancer prevention appears to be a standout area for collard greens with respect to their health benefits.

This connection between collard greens and cancer prevention should not be surprising since collard greens provide special nutrient support for three body systems that are closely connected with cancer development as well as cancer prevention. These three systems are (1) the body's detox system, (2) its antioxidant system, and (3) its inflammatory/anti-inflammatory system. Chronic imbalances in any of these three systems can increase our risk of cancer, and when imbalances in all three systems occur simultaneously, our risk of cancer can increase significantly. Among all types of cancer, prevention of the following cancer types is most closely associated with intake of collard greens: bladder cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and ovarian cancer.

Detox Support Provided by Collard Greens

Our body's detox process involves two distinct steps—called Phase 1 and Phase 2—and collard greens provide nutrients that support both of these steps. In Phase 1 of detox, potentially toxic compounds are activated to make them more reactive. Phase 1 of detox requires strong antioxidant support, and collards are antioxidant-rich greens that contain phenols, polyphenols, and conventional antioxidant nutrients like vitamins C and E. In Phase 2 of detox, activated compounds get hooked together with specific nutrients to make them water-soluble and allow for excretion from the body. Here is where the detox support provided by collards is perhaps most unique. Collard greens provide us with unique sulfur-containing compounds called glucosinolates. These glucosinolates can be converted into related compounds called isothiocyanates, or ITCs. The ITCs made from glucosinolates in collard greens (and other cruciferous vegetables) have been shown to modify enzyme activity in Phase 2 of detox and increase the likelihood of detox success. The chart below shows some of the best-studied glucosinolates in collard greens and ITCs that can be made from each of them.

GlucosinolateDerived IsothiocyanateIsothiocyanate Abbreviation
glucobrassinindole-3-carbinol*I3C
glucoraphaninsulforaphaneSFN
gluconasturtiianphenethyl-isothiocyanatePEITC
glucotropaeolinbenzyl-isothiocyanateBITC

* Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is not an isothiocyanate. It's a benzopyrrole, and it is only formed when isothiocyanates made from glucobrassicin are further broken down into non-sulfur containing compounds.

The Antioxidant Benefits of Collard Greens

As an excellent source of vitamin C, vitamin A (in the form of carotenoids), and manganese, and a good source of vitamin E, collard greens provide us with four core conventional antioxidants. But the antioxidant support provided by collard greens extends far beyond the conventional nutrients into the realm of phytonutrients. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol are among the key antioxidant phytonutrients provided by collard greens. This broad spectrum antioxidant support helps lower the risk of oxidative stress in our cells. Chronic oxidative stress—meaning chronic presence over overly reactive oxygen-containing molecules and cumulative damage to our cells by these molecules—is a risk factor for development of most cancer types. By providing us with such a great array of antioxidant nutrients, collard greens help lower our cancer risk by helping us avoid chronic and unwanted oxidative stress.

Collard Greens' Anti-inflammatory Benefits

As an excellent source of vitamin K and a good source of omega-3 fatty acids (in the form of alpha-linolenic acid, or ALA), collard greens provide us with two hallmark anti-inflammatory nutrients. Vitamin K acts as a direct regulator of our inflammatory response, and ALA is the building block for several of the body's most widely-used families of anti-inflammatory messaging molecules. In addition to these two anti-inflammatory components, one of the glucosinolates found in collard greens—glucobrassicin—can be readily converted into an isothiocyanate molecule called I3C, or indole-3-carbinol (I3C). I3C is an anti-inflammatory compound that can actually operate at the genetic level, and by doing so, prevent the initiation of inflammatory responses at a very early stage.

Like chronic oxidative stress and chronic weakened detox ability, chronic unwanted inflammation can significantly increase our risk of cancers and other chronic diseases (especially cardiovascular diseases).

Collard Greens and Cardiovascular Support

Given the extensive list of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients provided by collard greens, it is not surprising that these greens provide us with cardiovascular support. In particular, many chronic blood vessel problems begin with excessive oxygen-related damage to blood vessel walls and blood constituents, as well as chronic inflammation.

Of particular interest with respect to collard greens has been the isothiocyanate (ITC) sulforaphane, which is made from glucoraphanin, one of the glucosinolates provided by collard greens. Not only does this ITC trigger anti-inflammatory activity in our cardiovascular system, it may also be able to help prevent and even possibly help reverse blood vessel damage.

A second area you can count on collard greens for cardiovascular support involves their cholesterol-lowering ability. As mentioned earlier in this profile, when we eat collard greens, fiber-related nutrients in this cruciferous vegetable bind together with some of the bile acids in the intestine in such a way that they simply stay inside the intestine and pass out of our body in a bowel movement, rather than getting absorbed along with the fat they have emulsified. When this happens, our liver needs to replace the lost bile acids by drawing upon our existing supply of cholesterol, and as a result, our cholesterol level drops down. Collard greens, in both raw and cooked form, have been shown to provide this cholesterol-lowering benefit. However, a recent study has shown that the cholesterol-lowering ability of raw collard greens improves when they are steamed. In addition to the support factors described above, it would be wrong to talk about the cardiovascular benefits of collard greens without mentioning their diverse array of B vitamins. Collard greens are a very good source of vitamins B2, B6, and choline, and a good source of vitamins B1, B3, folate, and pantothenic acid. A well-balanced intake of B vitamins - especially vitamins B6, B12, folate, and choline - can be important in controlling cardiovascular disease risk. Since excessive or deficient intake of these B vitamins can have an unwanted impact on your disease risk, it is great to have a food like collard greens that provide a helpful amount of so many B vitamins.

Collard Greens and Digestive Support

The fiber content of collard greens—over 7 grams in every cup—makes this cruciferous vegetable a natural choice for digestive system support. Yet the fiber content of collard greens is only one of their digestive support mechanisms. Researchers have determined that the sulforaphane made from a glucosinolate in collard greens (glucoraphanin) helps protect the health of our stomach lining by preventing bacterial overgrowth of Helicobacter pylori in our stomach or too much clinging by this bacterium to our stomach wall.

Other Health Benefits From Collard Greens

The anti-inflammatory nature of glucosinolates/isothiocyanates and other nutrients found in collard greens has been the basis for new research on inflammation-related health problems and the potential role of collard greens in their prevention. Current and potentially promising research is underway to examine the benefits of collard greens in relationship to our risk of the following inflammation-related conditions: Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, insulin resistance, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic syndrome, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes, and ulcerative colitis.

Description

All cruciferous vegetables provide integrated nourishment across a wide variety of nutritional categories and provide broad support across a wide variety of body systems as well. For more on cruciferous vegetables see:

The Brassicaceae family of plants—more frequently referred to in previous years as the Cruciferae family includes a large number of edible plants. Many commonly enjoyed foods in this plant family come from a single genus/species of plant called Brassica oleracea. These foods include broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and kohlrabi. Collards come from this same genus/species as well, but also from a particular subspecies called Brassica oleracea subspecies viridis. Within this genus/species of plant, kale and collards are closely related since both belong to what is called the Acephala group. However, unlike kale, collards are relatively smooth in texture and relatively broad leafed, whereas kale can be more narrow and either curly or ruffled in texture. Depending on the specific variety of collard, this cruciferous vegetable can be mild-to-slightly strong in flavor. Some food writers have also referred to collards as slightly "smoky" in flavor. Raw collards can also sometimes be tougher in texture than their fellow leafy greens. It is also worth noting that unlike most varieties of cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli, collard plants are loose-leafed and non-head-forming. Common varieties of collards enjoyed in the U.S. include Champion, Georgia Southern, Morris Heading, Vates, and Ole Timey Blue. Like most of their fellow greens, collards are considered cool season crops and do especially well in temperatures between 50-65°F (10-18°C).

History

Like kale, cauliflower, modern cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, and broccoli, collards are considered by many plant historians to be descendents of wild cabbage that was found in many parts of Europe over 2,000 years ago. This line of descent may be especially accurate for collards, since the ancestral wild cabbages in Europe were loose leafed and didn't form a head, much like present-day collards and kale.

Collards are currently enjoyed worldwide as a staple part of different cuisines. Collards are staple vegetables in diets in some parts of East Africa (for example, in areas of Tanzania and Kenya); in some parts of South America (for example, in areas of Brazil); in southern Europe (especially Portugal); in south Asia (especially in the Kashmir Valley region); and also in the southeastern United States. As mentioned earlier in this profile, older adults in the southeastern United States still rank collard greens as their second most favorite food (after chicken), and collard greens still provide an unusual amount of the diet's total antioxidant capacity for some individuals in this region of the U.S. We have not seen reliable data, however, for total collard green production or consumption in the U.S. or worldwide.

How to Select and Store

Look for collard greens that have firm, unwilted leaves that are vividly deep green in color with no signs of yellowing or browning. Leaves that are smaller in size will be more tender and have a milder flavor. They should be displayed in a chilled section in the refrigerator case to prevent them from wilting and becoming bitter.

At WHFoods, we encourage the purchase of certified organically grown foods, and collard greens are no exception. Repeated research studies on organic foods as a group show that your likelihood of exposure to contaminants such as pesticides and heavy metals can be greatly reduced through the purchased of certified organic foods, including collard greens. In many cases, you may be able to find a local organic grower who sells collard greens but has not applied for formal organic certification either through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) or through a state agency. (Examples of states offering state-certified organic foods include California, New York, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington.) However, if you are shopping in a large supermarket, your most reliable source of organically grown collard greens is very likely to be collard greens that display the USDA organic logo.

Place collard greens in a plastic bag, removing as much of the air from the bag as possible. Store in the refrigerator where they should keep fresh for about three to five days.

Here is some background on why we recommend refrigerating collard greens. Whenever food is stored, four basic factors affect its nutrient composition: exposure to air, exposure to light, exposure to heat, and length of time in storage. Vitamin C, vitamin B6, and carotenoids are good examples of nutrients highly susceptible to heat, and for this reason, their loss from food is very likely to be slowed down through refrigeration.

Tips for Preparing and Cooking

Tips for Preparing Collard Greens

Rinse collard greens under cold running water. Chop leaf portion into 1/2-inch slices and the stems into 1/4-inch pieces for quick and even cooking.

The Nutrient-Rich Way of Cooking Collard Greens

We recommend Quick Steaming collard greens. We find that Healthy Steaming collard greens also gives them maximum favor.

Quick Steaming;mdash;similar to Healthy Sauté and Quick Boiling, our other recommended cooking methods—follows three basic cooking guidelines that are generally associated in food science research with improved nutrient retention. These three guidelines are: (1) minimal necessary heat exposure; (2) minimal necessary cooking duration; (3) minimal necessary food surface contact with cooking liquid.

Fill the bottom of a steamer pot with 2 inches of water. While waiting for the water to come to a rapid boil chop greens. Steam for 5 minutes and toss with our Mediterranean Dressing and top with your favorite optional ingredients. For details see 5-Minute Collard Greens.

How to Enjoy

A Few Quick Serving Ideas
  • Serve steamed collard greens with black-eyed peas and brown rice for a Southern-inspired meal.
  • Use lightly steamed, cooled, and chopped collard greens as a filling in your sushi vegetable rolls.
WHFoods Recipes That Feature Collard Greens

If you'd like even more recipes and ways to prepare collard greens the Nutrient-Rich Way, you may want to explore The World's Healthiest Foods book.

Individual Concerns

Collard Greens and Goitrogens

You may sometimes hear collard greens being described as a food that contains "goitrogens," or as a food that is "goitrogenic." For helpful information in this area—including our WHFoods Recommendations—please see our article What is meant by the term "goitrogen" and what is the connection between goitrogens, food, and health?.

Nutritional Profile

Collard greens are an excellent source of vitamin K, vitamin A (in the form of carotenoids), manganese, vitamin C, dietary fiber and calcium. In addition, collard greens are a very good source of vitamin B1, vitamin B6 and iron. They are also a good source of vitamin E, copper, protein, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin B5, folate, omega-3 fatty acids, niacin, vitamin B1 and potassium. Phytonutrients in collard greens include phenols like caffeic and ferulic acid, flavonoids like quercetin and kaempferol, and glucosinolates like glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin.

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart

In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source (below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn't contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients - not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good - please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you'll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling." Read more background information and details of our rating system.

Collard Greens, chopped, cooked
1.00 cup
190.00 grams
Calories: 63
GI: very low
NutrientAmountDRI/DV
(%)
Nutrient
Density
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
vitamin K772.54 mcg858246.4excellent
vitamin A722.00 mcg RAE8023.0excellent
manganese0.97 mg4913.9excellent
vitamin C34.58 mg4613.2excellent
fiber7.60 g308.7excellent
calcium267.90 mg277.7excellent
choline72.96 mg174.9very good
vitamin B20.20 mg154.4very good
vitamin B60.24 mg144.1very good
iron2.15 mg123.4very good
vitamin E1.67 mg (ATE)113.2good
copper0.10 mg113.2good
protein5.15 g103.0good
magnesium39.90 mg102.9good
phosphorus60.80 mg92.5good
pantothenic acid0.41 mg82.4good
folate30.40 mcg82.2good
omega-3 fats0.18 g82.2good
vitamin B31.09 mg72.0good
vitamin B10.08 mg71.9good
potassium222.30 mg61.8good
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
Rule
excellent DRI/DV>=75% OR
Density>=7.6 AND DRI/DV>=10%
very good DRI/DV>=50% OR
Density>=3.4 AND DRI/DV>=5%
good DRI/DV>=25% OR
Density>=1.5 AND DRI/DV>=2.5%

In-Depth Nutritional Profile

In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an in-depth nutritional profile for Collard greens. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.

Collard Greens, chopped, cooked
(Note: "--" indicates data unavailable)
1.00 cup
(190.00 g)
GI: very low
BASIC MACRONUTRIENTS AND CALORIES
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Protein5.15 g10
Carbohydrates10.73 g5
Fat - total1.37 g--
Dietary Fiber7.60 g30
Calories62.703
MACRONUTRIENT AND CALORIE DETAIL
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Carbohydrate:
Starch-- g
Total Sugars0.76 g
Monosaccharides-- g
Fructose-- g
Glucose-- g
Galactose-- g
Disaccharides-- g
Lactose-- g
Maltose-- g
Sucrose-- g
Soluble Fiber3.42 g
Insoluble Fiber4.18 g
Other Carbohydrates2.37 g
Fat:
Monounsaturated Fat0.05 g
Polyunsaturated Fat0.33 g
Saturated Fat0.09 g
Trans Fat0.00 g
Calories from Fat12.31
Calories from Saturated Fat0.80
Calories from Trans Fat0.00
Cholesterol0.00 mg
Water171.34 g
MICRONUTRIENTS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
B-Complex Vitamins
Vitamin B10.08 mg7
Vitamin B20.20 mg15
Vitamin B31.09 mg7
Vitamin B3 (Niacin Equivalents)1.95 mg
Vitamin B60.24 mg14
Vitamin B120.00 mcg0
Biotin-- mcg--
Choline72.96 mg17
Folate30.40 mcg8
Folate (DFE)30.40 mcg
Folate (food)30.40 mcg
Pantothenic Acid0.41 mg8
Vitamin C34.58 mg46
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A (Retinoids and Carotenoids)
Vitamin A International Units (IU)14440.00 IU
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE)722.00 mcg (RAE)80
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)1444.00 mcg (RE)
Retinol mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)0.00 mcg (RE)
Carotenoid mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)1444.00 mcg (RE)
Alpha-Carotene129.20 mcg
Beta-Carotene8574.70 mcg
Beta-Carotene Equivalents9251.10 mcg
Cryptoxanthin49.40 mcg
Lutein and Zeaxanthin11774.30 mcg
Lycopene0.00 mcg
Vitamin D
Vitamin D International Units (IU)0.00 IU0
Vitamin D mcg0.00 mcg
Vitamin E
Vitamin E mg Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE)1.67 mg (ATE)11
Vitamin E International Units (IU)2.49 IU
Vitamin E mg1.67 mg
Vitamin K772.54 mcg858
Minerals
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Boron283.99 mcg
Calcium267.90 mg27
Chloride-- mg
Chromium-- mcg--
Copper0.10 mg11
Fluoride-- mg--
Iodine-- mcg--
Iron2.15 mg12
Magnesium39.90 mg10
Manganese0.97 mg49
Molybdenum-- mcg--
Phosphorus60.80 mg9
Potassium222.30 mg6
Selenium0.95 mcg2
Sodium28.50 mg2
Zinc0.44 mg4
INDIVIDUAL FATTY ACIDS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids0.18 g8
Omega-6 Fatty Acids0.14 g
Monounsaturated Fats
14:1 Myristoleic-- g
15:1 Pentadecenoic-- g
16:1 Palmitol-- g
17:1 Heptadecenoic-- g
18:1 Oleic0.05 g
20:1 Eicosenoic-- g
22:1 Erucic-- g
24:1 Nervonic-- g
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
18:2 Linoleic0.13 g
18:2 Conjugated Linoleic (CLA)-- g
18:3 Linolenic0.18 g
18:4 Stearidonic-- g
20:3 Eicosatrienoic-- g
20:4 Arachidonic0.00 g
20:5 Eicosapentaenoic (EPA)-- g
22:5 Docosapentaenoic (DPA)-- g
22:6 Docosahexaenoic (DHA)-- g
Saturated Fatty Acids
4:0 Butyric-- g
6:0 Caproic-- g
8:0 Caprylic-- g
10:0 Capric-- g
12:0 Lauric0.00 g
14:0 Myristic0.00 g
15:0 Pentadecanoic-- g
16:0 Palmitic0.07 g
17:0 Margaric-- g
18:0 Stearic0.00 g
20:0 Arachidic-- g
22:0 Behenate-- g
24:0 Lignoceric-- g
INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Alanine0.17 g
Arginine0.21 g
Aspartic Acid0.31 g
Cysteine0.04 g
Glutamic Acid0.33 g
Glycine0.15 g
Histidine0.08 g
Isoleucine0.16 g
Leucine0.25 g
Lysine0.19 g
Methionine0.05 g
Phenylalanine0.14 g
Proline0.17 g
Serine0.13 g
Threonine0.14 g
Tryptophan0.05 g
Tyrosine0.11 g
Valine0.20 g
OTHER COMPONENTS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Ash1.39 g
Organic Acids (Total)-- g
Acetic Acid-- g
Citric Acid-- g
Lactic Acid-- g
Malic Acid-- g
Taurine-- g
Sugar Alcohols (Total)-- g
Glycerol-- g
Inositol-- g
Mannitol-- g
Sorbitol-- g
Xylitol-- g
Artificial Sweeteners (Total)-- mg
Aspartame-- mg
Saccharin-- mg
Alcohol0.00 g
Caffeine0.00 mg

Note:

The nutrient profiles provided in this website are derived from The Food Processor, Version 10.12.0, ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon, USA. Among the 50,000+ food items in the master database and 163 nutritional components per item, specific nutrient values were frequently missing from any particular food item. We chose the designation "--" to represent those nutrients for which no value was included in this version of the database.

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