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Shrimp
Shrimp

What's New and Beneficial About Shrimp

  • Shrimp can be a unique source of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory carotenoid nutrient astaxanthin. It is possible for a single 4-ounce serving of shrimp to contain 1-4 milligrams of astaxanthin. In animal studies, astaxanthin has been shown to provide antioxidant support to both the nervous system and musculoskeletal system. In addition, some animal studies have shown decreased risk of colon cancer to be associated with astaxanthin intake, as well as decreased risk of certain diabetes-related problems. Importantly, the astaxanthin content of shrimp can vary widely, mostly in proportion to the amount of astaxanthin in their diet. In addition, the source of astaxanthin in the diet of shrimp remains an ongoing controversy. Since over half of the shrimp consumed both in the U.S. and worldwide are farmed, the diets that they consume depend on the approach of the producers. Both synthetic forms of astaxanthin and naturally occurring forms found in phytoplankton and zooplankton have been used in shrimp farming. In general, when purchasing farmed shrimp, we believe that it makes sense to select shrimp that have consumed natural and plentiful amounts of astaxanthin from natural dietary sources including marine algae and zooplankton. You will find more recommendations regarding shrimp selection in our How to Select and Store and Individual Concerns sections below.
  • At 56 micrograms in every 4 ounces, shrimp is an excellent source of the antioxidant mineral selenium. Recent research studies show that the selenium contained in shrimp can be well absorbed into the human body. In one study, we've seen an estimate of about 80-85% for total selenium absorption from this shellfish. Since selenium deficiency has been shown to be a risk factor for heart failure and other forms of cardiovascular disease, as well as for other problems including type 2 diabetes, compromised cognitive function, and depression, shrimp may have a unique role to play in your meal plan if your health history places you at special risk in any of these areas.
  • A second mineral benefit often overlooked in shrimp is its unusual concentration of copper. Not only does shrimp rank as a very good source of copper at WHFoods, but it is also our only fish to achieve this very good rating. Several recent studies show the copper richness of shrimp to be a standout among other fish. Researchers have pointed to a copper-containing protein in shrimp called hemocyanin as a likely reason for shrimp's unique copper richness. (This copper-containing protein is involved is the shrimp's oxygen metabolism.)
  • Shrimp is often included on the "avoid" list for persons wanting to minimize their dietary intake of cholesterol. The 220 milligrams of cholesterol contained in a 4-ounce serving of shrimp makes this approach a legitimate concern. However, despite its high cholesterol content, several recent research studies have noted some desirable aspects of the fat profile in shrimp. One of these desirable aspects is shrimp's omega-3 fat content. Four ounces of shrimp provides about 325 -375 milligrams of omega-3 fatty acids, including about 50% EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 50% DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). EPA and DHA are especially important omega-3s for cardiovascular and nervous system health. In addition to this great mixture of omega-3s, shrimp also provides an unusual omega-3:omega-6 ratio of approximately 1:1. Since higher ratios of omega-3:omega-6 are associated with decreased risk of many chronic diseases—including obesity, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes—this aspect of shrimp's fat content should be a huge plus, especially in meal plans with excessive amounts of omega-6s. Finally, it is interesting to note that according to recent studies, cholesterol is not the only sterol in shrimp. This type of fat is found in smaller amounts in the form of clionasterol and campesterol. While chemically similar to cholesterol, these other sterols function as anti-inflammatory molecules and they are associated with decreased levels of LDL-cholesterol, which would be considered a health benefit by many researchers. When looked at from this broader perspective, risks related to the high cholesterol content of shrimp might be overshadowed by its omega-3 and sterol composition—but we will need future studies to help us understand more about the big picture involving shrimp and fat. As always, if you have concerns that have you need to be cautious about cholesterol intake, discuss the inclusion of shrimp in your diet with your healthcare practitioner.

Shrimp, large, steamed
4.00 oz
(113.40 grams)
Calories: 135
GI: very low

NutrientDRI/DV

 selenium102%


 protein52%


 choline36%

 copper32%

 iodine31%


 zinc17%







This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Shrimp provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Shrimp can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Shrimp, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.

Health Benefits

Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Support

We don't usually think about seafood as a source of antioxidants, but shrimp features at least three unique antioxidants in its nutrient composition: the xanthophyll carotenoid called astaxanthin, and the minerals selenium and copper.

Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin is the primary color pigment in many shrimp, and it helps provide their tissue with its red and orange shades. While many reddish-orange foods get their color from other carotenoids (or from flavonoids), shrimp are especially concentrated in this one particular type of carotenoid. (Astaxanthin often accounts for at least two-thirds of all carotenoids in shrimp.) It is possible for a 4-ounce serving of shrimp to contain 1-4 milligrams of astaxanthin. In animal studies, astaxanthin has been shown to provide antioxidant support to both the nervous system and musculoskeletal system. In addition, some animal studies have shown decreased risk of colon cancer to be associated with astaxanthin intake, as well as decreased risk of certain diabetes-related problems. Under natural conditions, shrimp get astaxanthin through their diet, by consuming smaller organisms that contain this carotenoid, including algae and zooplankton. When farmed, the astaxanthin content of shrimp depends on the composition of their feed. Both synthetic forms of astaxanthin and naturally occurring forms of astaxanthin have been used in shrimp farming, and the use of synthetic astaxanthin remains a topic of ongoing controversy. In general, when purchasing farmed shrimp, we believe that it makes sense to select shrimp that have consumed natural and plentiful amounts of astaxanthin from natural dietary sources including marine algae and zooplankton. You will find more recommendations regarding shrimp selection in our How to Select and Store and Individual Concerns sections below.

Selenium and Copper

In the world of antioxidants, few enzymes are more important in our body than glutathione peroxidase (GPO). GPO helps protect most of our body systems from unwanted damage by oxygen-containing molecules. It is critical in body systems like the lungs, where exposure to these molecules is especially high. GPO is an enzyme that cannot function without the mineral selenium.

At 56 micrograms in every 4 ounces, shrimp is an excellent source of this antioxidant mineral. Shrimp is not only rich in selenium; research studies show that the selenium found in shrimp can be well-absorbed into the human body. In one study, we've seen an estimate of about 80-85% for total selenium absorption from this shellfish. In addition to risk of problems involving lung function, selenium deficiency has been shown to increase our risk of heart failure and other forms of cardiovascular disease, as well as for other problems including type 2 diabetes, compromised cognitive function, and depression.

Copper is also classified as an antioxidant mineral, and one of its key roles in our health is related to the function of an enzyme called copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD). SOD is found in the major fluid compartment of our cells (called the cytosol) and it is known to play a major role in regulation of oxygen metabolism and prevention of oxidative stress. Shrimp is our only fish at WHFoods to qualify as a "very good" source of copper in our rating system and it stands out in this respect as a source of antioxidant minerals. Not be overlooked, of course, is the fact that we also rank shrimp as a good source of zinc—the second mineral required for effective SOD function.

Protein and Peptide Support

At nearly 26 grams per 4-ounce serving, shrimp ranks as a very good source of protein at WHFoods, and provides over half of the Daily Value (DV) in each serving. In fact, among all WHFoods, shrimp ranks as our 8th best source of protein. The protein richness of shrimp is one of the reasons this shellfish is relied on in so many different culinary traditions.

When the protein in fish (or any other food) is broken down during digestion, smaller protein fragments called peptides are formed. (Peptides are chains of amino acids. Proteins are too, but they are longer chains and more complicated in their structure.) Some relatively short peptides—consisting of only 10-25 amino acids—have been found to be present in partially digested shrimp proteins and appear able to stimulate release of the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) from cells that line our intestinal tract. Release of CCK is important for many reasons, including the role of CCK in regulating appetite. Our feeling of satiety (lack of appetite) is partly related to the levels of CCK in our digestive tract. By helping trigger release of CCK, shrimp peptides may play a role in helping us feel full. In the long run, this feeling of satiety may also be an advantage in helping to decrease our risk of obesity. Research on shrimp peptides and satiety is in its early stage, and largely limited to animal studies at this point. But we expect to see increasing interest in this area of shrimp and health.

Other Health Benefits

At only 7 calories per shrimp, we can eat a relatively large amount of this shellfish without using up too many of our daily calories. For example, a person eating 1,800 calories per day could consume 20 shrimp and only be "spending" about 8% of his or her daily calories. This very low calorie cost would not be so remarkable if it were not for the fact that shrimp provides us with significant amounts of so many nutrients. We usually have to eat foods with a far greater calorie content to get the nutrient richness provided by shrimp. For example, those same 20 shrimp that provide us with about 140 calories also provide us with 25 grams of protein or 50% of the Daily Value (DV).They also provide nearly 2 micrograms of vitamin B12—over 80% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) level for adults. When this nutrient richness list for shrimp is continued across the list of other vitamins and minerals provided by this fish, it becomes striking how much nourishment can be provided by shrimp for less than 10% of a total day's calories.

Description

Shrimp are crustaceans (just like lobsters and crabs) and they belong to a category of living things called arthropods. Like all arthropods, shrimp have their skeleton on the outside instead of the inside ) and this outer skeleton (technically called an exoskeleton) is one of the features that gives shrimp their unusual look—almost like having a head shield that blocks out all of their features except their eyes, mouth opening, and antennae. In the U.S., consumers don't typically eat the outer skeleton, heads, or tails of shrimp, even though these parts are often rich in nutrients and commonly consumed in most other countries. Shrimp account for about 30% of all seafood consumed in the U.S. Out of 14-15 pounds of total seafood per year consumed by the average U.S. adult each year, about 4-5 pounds come from shrimp. (Salmon and tuna have typically engaged in a tug-of-war for second place, and are typically consumed in average amounts of approximately 2-3 pounds per year. Shrimp are produced, sold, and consumed in a variety of different forms, including fresh, frozen, breaded, cooked, dried, and in paste form. In addition, you will find shrimp that are peeled, unpeeled, veined, deveined, and with head on or head off.

It would be difficult to find a WHFood with greater diversity than shrimp. While we are accustomed to thinking about foods like potatoes as involving a wide variety of colors and shapes (for example, large brown russets, medium sized golds, or small fingerlength reds), there are hundreds of commercially important shrimp species and literally thousands of total species worldwide. Yet, there is no relationship between the species of a shrimp and its color. You can find pink, red, white, brown, blue, and green shrimp, but within each of these color categories can be found a wide variety of shrimp species. No less diverse are the habitats of shrimp. These remarkable crustaceans can live in freshwater, saltwater, brackish water, or a combination of habitats. (Brackish water—also sometimes called briny water—is simply water that falls in between freshwater and saltwater. It is more salty than freshwater and less salty than saltwater.) In terms of saltwater habitats, the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans serve as the top three saltwater habitats for shrimp. Added to this unusual diversity of habitats is the tendency of some researchers to group shrimp together based on the average water temperature of their environment. Warm-water shrimp come from tropical waters in southern parts of the world, and cold-water shrimp come from colder northern waters.

The terms "shrimp" and "prawns" can be confusing. Even scientists often use these words inconsistently. In the popular press and in many restaurants, larger shrimp—often from freshwater habitats—are referred to as "prawns," while smaller shrimp—often from saltwater habitats—are called "shrimp." In terms of size, "large" typically means that you get about 40 or less per cooked pound (in comparison to about 50 for "medium" and 60 for "small"). But from a science perspective, both shrimp and prawns can come from saltwater or freshwater, and there is no absolute standard for measuring small, medium, or large. In this article and throughout our website, we'll be using the word "shrimp" as a general term that includes all species—even those which might be referred to as "prawns" in some research studies or in some restaurants.

Many people ask about the way shrimp sizes (small, medium, large, jumbo) are determined. While there is no precise method typically used for shrimp sizing, count per pound is the most common method used. (Count per pound refers to the number of shrimp that you get when you purchase or consume one pound.) With small cooked shrimp, that number is usually around 60. With medium cooked shrimp, it falls to about 50 (since the shrimp are bigger, and each one weighs more). For large shrimp, the count per pound is about 40. For jumbo shrimp the count per pound is about 30.

We have created the chart below to give you a better idea about the amazing diversity of shrimp. As you will see in the chart, there are numerous shrimp families, and within any given family, you will find examples of shrimp that are being referred to by a particular color, or by the name "prawn" versus "shrimp." However, these common names do not necessarily provide you with helpful information about the nutrient content of the shrimp, since that nutrient content typically depends more on the species of shrimp and its lifelong habitat (including of course, its diet).

Classification of Various Shrimp as Crustaceans (Decapoda Order)

SuborderFamilyGenusSpecies
Dendrobranchiata
Penaeidiae
Farfantepenaeus
aztecus (brown shrimp)
brasiliensis (pinkspotted shrimp)
brevirostris (crystal shrimp, pink shrimp)
californiensis (yellowleg shrimp)
duorarum (pink shrimp)
paulensis (pink shrimp)
subtilis (southern brown shrimp)
Fenerropenaeus
chinensis (fleshy prawn)
indicus (Indian white shrimp)
merquiensis (banana prawn)
penicillatus (redtail prawn)
Litopenaeus
schmitti (white shrimp)
setiferus (white shrimp)
stylirostris (blue shrimp)
vannamei (Pacific white shrimp)
Penaeus
esculentus (brown tiger prawn)
monodon (black tiger shrimp)
semisulcatus (green tiger prawn)
Sicyoniidae (rock shrimps)
Sicyonia
burkenroadi (spiny rock shrimp)
brevirostris (coral shrimp)
dorsalis (lesser rock shrimp)
ingentis (ridgeback rock shrimp)
lancifer (knight rock shrimp)
Solenoceridae (solenocerid shrimps)
Pleoticus
mulleri (Argentine red shrimp)
robustus (royal red shrimp)
Solenocera (humpback shrimps)
agassizzi (kolibri shrimp)
crassicornis (coastal mud shrimp)
koelbeli (Chinese mud shrimp)
vioscai (humpback shrimp)
Pleocyemata
Crangonidae
Crangon
alaskensis (Alaskan bay shrimp)
crangon (brown shrimp)
franciscorum (California bay shrimp)
septemspinosa (sand shrimp)
Pontophilus
norvegicus (Norwegian shrimp)
Palaemonidae (palaemonid shrimps)
Macrobrachium
malcomsonii (monsoon river prawn)
nipponense (oriental river prawn)
rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)
Palaemon
varians (Atlantic ditch shrimp)
Pandalideae (pandalid shrimps)*
Dichelopandalus
bonnieri (whip shrimp)
leptocerus (bristled longbeak)
Pandalus
borealis (northern shrimp)
eous (northern pink shrimp)
hypsinotus (coonstripe shrimp)
Hippolytidae
Ealus
abricii (Arctic eualid)
Lebbeus
polaris (polar shrimp)
groenlandicus (spiny lebbeid)
Spirontocaris
lamellicornis (Dana's blade shrimp)
liljeborgii (friendly blade shrimp)
spinus (parrot shrimp)

* The name "caridean shrimp" is also sometimes used to refer to panadalid shrimp from the Pandalideae family (and from three other shrimp families as well). It is based on a scientific classification rank called an "infraorder."

Unfortunately, there is no way to take this amazing diversity of shrimp species and narrow it down to some simple set of shrimp recommendations that is based primarily on species or habitat. Some natural habitats remain fairly healthy and well suited for shrimp harvesting, and other do not. Similarly, it is important to remember that about 55% of shrimp consumed in the U.S. and worldwide are presently farmed, and the quality of shrimp farming conditions can also vary widely. Some farmed shrimp are raised in fully recirculating, fully open, or other types of systems that are carefully monitored and that come closer to approximately natural conditions than other types of shrimp farms. In addition, the diet fed to farmed shrimp can vary widely, and in some cases incorporates natural feedstocks involving both algae and zooplankton.

As a result of these many different factors, some shrimp raised under farmed conditions may provide a favorable option to non-farmed shrimp that have lived in contaminated and/or overfished habitats. While we recognize the ongoing nature of environmental debates over farmed fish (aquaculture) versus caught fish (catch fishery), we believe that in today's marketplace—and based on research studies about the nutrient content of shrimp—your best bet when selecting shrimp is to follow the recommendations of an organization that continually monitors shrimp quality in the U.S. marketplace and makes recommendations based on a combination of actual marketplace and environmental factors rather than any single, pre-established criterion (for example, farmed versus caught, freshwater versus saltwater, Atlantic Ocean versus Pacific Ocean, large versus small, etc.). In our Individual Concerns section, we provide you with website links to some of seafood monitoring organizations that rank at the top of our recommendation list for making shrimp choices.

History

It's virtually impossible to find a continent or major world location in which shrimp has not been traditionally enjoyed as a part of local cuisine. Whether you look to North America, Central America, South America, Europe, the Mediterranean, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, or the Arctic, you will find traditions in which shrimp have been enjoyed as a regular part of the meal plan. That's why you will find 2014 imports of shrimp into the U.S. from about two dozen different countries, including India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia, China, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Argentina, Honduras, Panama, Nicaragua, Canada, Mexico, and the Philippines. Similarly, you will find capture fisheries and aquaculture being practiced in most of these countries, as well as others.

About 55% of global commercial shrimp is currently farmed. Litopenaeus vannemei (Pacific white shrimp) is the most widely farmed single species. Other widely farmed species include Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn) and Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp). Crangon crangon (brown shrimp) are among the most widely caught shrimp species. Many observers expect shrimp farming to increase over the next decade, with a heightened focus on aquafeed management, broodstock, larviculture, and growout. It remains to be seen whether overall shrimp farming practices will be able to develop in ways that can further recognize and accommodate some of the barriers inherent with aquaculture, and whether the overall quality of farmed shrimp will compare favorably or unfavorably to overall quality of wild shrimp. As stated in the previous section, however, we believe that it does not make sense to purchase your shrimp based on any single criterion, regardless of whether that criterion is farmed versus caught, freshwater versus saltwater, etc. Instead, we believe that your best bet is to follow the recommendations of an organization that continually monitors shrimp quality and makes its recommendations based on a combination of many different factors. In our Individual Concerns section below, we provide practical recommendations in this regard.

How to Select and Store

Just as with any seafood, it is best to purchase shrimp from a store that has a good reputation for having a fresh supply. Get to know a fishmonger (person who sells the seafood) at the store so that you can have a trusted resource from whom you can purchase your seafood.

When you will be preparing the shrimp should influence your decision as to whether you should buy fresh or frozen shrimp. Frozen shrimp offer the longest shelf life, as they are able to be kept for several weeks, whereas fresh shrimp will only keep for a day or two. We think about fresh shrimp as a very perishable food, ideally eaten on the same day as they are purchased.

Fresh shrimp should have firm bodies that are still attached to their shells. They should be free of black spots on their shell since this indicates that the flesh has begun to break down. In addition, the shells should not appear yellow or gritty as this may be indicative that sodium bisulfate or another chemical has been used to bleach the shells.

Smell is a good indicator of freshness; good quality shrimp have a slightly saltwater smell. Since a slightly "off" smell cannot be detected through plastic, if you have the option, purchase displayed shrimp as opposed to those that are prepackaged. Once the fishmonger wraps and hands you the shrimp that you have selected, smell them through the paper wrapping and return them if they do not smell right. When fresh shrimp have been left out for too long, some people describe them as having an "ammonia" smell.

Color can also be an indicator of poor fresh shrimp quality. Unless you are purchasing spotted or striped shrimp, you should not see dark spots or rings of any kind. These markings are usually a sign of deterioration.

When storing any type of seafood, including shrimp, it is important to keep it cold since seafood is very sensitive to temperature. Therefore, after purchasing shrimp or other seafood, make sure to return it to a refrigerator as soon as possible. If the shrimp is going to accompany you during a day full of errands, keep a cooler in the car where you can place the shrimp to make sure it stays cold and does not spoil.

The temperature of most refrigerators is slightly warmer than ideal for storing seafood. Therefore, to ensure maximum freshness and quality, it is important to use special storage methods so as to create the optimal temperature for holding the shrimp.

One of the easiest ways to do this is to place the shrimp in a zip-lock bag in a baking dish layered with ice or icepacks. Place ice or icepacks over the shrimp as well. The baking dish and shrimp should then be placed on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator, which is its coolest area. Replenish ice one or two times per day. Shrimp can be refrigerated for up to two days although it should be purchased as close to being served as possible.

You can extend the shelf life of shrimp by freezing it. To do so, wrap it well in plastic and place it in the coldest part of the freezer where it will keep for about one month.

To defrost shrimp place it in a bowl of cold water or in the refrigerator. Do not thaw the shrimp at room temperature or in a microwave since this can lead to a loss of moisture and nutrients, and can increase risk of contamination.

Tips for Preparing and Cooking

Tips for Preparing Shrimp

Shrimp can be cooked either shelled or unshelled depending how you will be using them in a recipe. There are various methods to removing the shell. One way is to first pinch off the head and the legs and then, holding the tail, peel the shell off from the body. If shelling frozen shrimp, do not defrost them completely as they will be easier to shell when they are still slightly frozen.

A much-debated question about shrimp involves the need for de-veining. The dark "vein" that runs lengthwise down the back of the shrimp is not actually a vein at all, but rather the shrimp's digestive tract. Like the other parts of a shrimp, it is both edible and contains nutrients. However, many people dislike the texture of this shrimp part, and they also dislike the idea of eating what amounts to the shrimp's intestine. We've searched for research on the nutrient contents of the shrimp's "vein," as well as the potential contaminant contents, but we have not found helpful information in this regard. Luckily, the vein of the shrimp is easy to see, and if you want to remove it, you can do so fairly easily with a shrimp deveiner. These devices are inexpensive and available at most kitchen supply stores; they make the job of shrimp deveining fairly easy. An alternative method is to very carefully slice down the back of the shrimp with a knife and hold the shrimp under cold running water to allow the force of the water to rinse out the vein contents.

How to Enjoy

A Few Quick Serving Ideas

  • Combine chopped shrimp with chopped scallions, tomatoes, diced chili peppers, garlic, lemon juice, and a little olive oil. Season to taste and serve this fragrant shrimp salad on a bed of romaine lettuce.
  • Serve cold cooked shrimp with salsa dip.
  • Cut up cooked shrimp and add it to vegetable soups.
  • Make a quick, easy and healthy version of pasta putanesca. Add cooked shrimp to spicy pasta sauce and serve over whole wheat noodles.
See some of our favorite Recipes

Individual Concerns

General Environmental Concerns

Contamination of ocean waters, overfishing of fish and shellfish species, quality of fish farming practices, potential detrimental effects of certain fishing methods on wildlife, and risk of exposure to fish contaminants (especially mercury) have become individual concerns for many consumers. (These concerns are not limited to shrimp, but extend to all seafood.) Luckily, two organizations in the U.S. have worked to evaluate all the issues listed above, and offer practical recommendations for making fish choices in light of these concerns. We encourage you to make use of the resources provided by both of these organizations. The first organization is the Monterey Bay Seafood Watch (www.seafoodwatch.org)

You can find practical recommendation for 65 different types of fish thanks to the work of Monterey Bay, as well as Best Choices, Good Alternatives, and Choices to Avoid. You can also download seafood guides specific to your region of the United States and a mobile app providing you with this information. The Monterey Bay Seafood Watch program is associated with the Monterey Bay Aquarium in Monterey Bay, California and run by the not-for-profit Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation.

The second organization is the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration Fish Watch (http://www.fishwatch.gov/). The National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a federal agency in Washington, D.C. that has used its FishWatch website to create educational, user-friendly profiles of over 100 fish and shellfish, with up-to-date information about fishing rate, habitat impacts, population, bycatch, species science, nutrient content, and marketplace availability. In comparison with the Monterey Bay Seafood Watch, the FishWatch site is more educational in nature, and is focuses on the providing of information that can be used to make informed seafood choices.

Shrimp and Food Allergies

Crustacean shellfish, such as shrimp, are among the eight food types considered to be major food allergens in the U.S., requiring identification on food labels. For helpful information about this topic, please see our article, An Overview of Adverse Food Reactions.

Shrimp and Sulfites

Some adverse reactions to shrimp may not involve actual allergy but rather reaction to sulfite preservatives used to protect the shelf life of the shrimp. For details about possible adverse reactions to sulfites, please see our article An Overview of Adverse Food Reactions

Nutritional Profile

Shrimp is a unique source of the carotenoid astaxanthin. It's also an excellent source of selenium and vitamin B12. This shellfish is a very good source of protein, phosphorus, choline, copper and iodine. In addition, it is a good source of vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and pantothenic acid (all B-complex vitamins), as well as vitamin A and vitamin E. Shrimp also ranks as a good source of omega-3 fatty acids and contains roughly equal amounts of two specific omega-3s, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Shrimp is also a good source of the mineral zinc.

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart

In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source (below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn't contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients - not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good - please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you'll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling." Read more background information and details of our rating system.

Shrimp, large, steamed
4.00 oz
113.40 grams
Calories: 135
GI: very low
NutrientAmountDRI/DV
(%)
Nutrient
Density
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
selenium56.13 mcg10213.6excellent
vitamin B121.88 mcg7810.4excellent
protein25.83 g526.9very good
phosphorus347.00 mg506.6very good
choline153.54 mg364.8very good
copper0.29 mg324.3very good
iodine46.00 mcg314.1very good
vitamin B33.04 mg192.5good
zinc1.85 mg172.2good
vitamin E2.49 mg (ATE)172.2good
vitamin B60.27 mg162.1good
omega-3 fats0.34 g141.9good
pantothenic acid0.59 mg121.6good
vitamin A102.06 mcg RAE111.5good
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
Rule
excellent DRI/DV>=75% OR
Density>=7.6 AND DRI/DV>=10%
very good DRI/DV>=50% OR
Density>=3.4 AND DRI/DV>=5%
good DRI/DV>=25% OR
Density>=1.5 AND DRI/DV>=2.5%

In-Depth Nutritional Profile

In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an in-depth nutritional profile for Shrimp. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.

Shrimp, large, steamed
(Note: "--" indicates data unavailable)
4.00 oz
(113.40 g)
GI: very low
BASIC MACRONUTRIENTS AND CALORIES
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Protein25.83 g52
Carbohydrates1.72 g1
Fat - total1.93 g--
Dietary Fiber0.00 g0
Calories134.947
MACRONUTRIENT AND CALORIE DETAIL
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Carbohydrate:
Starch0.00 g
Total Sugars0.00 g
Monosaccharides0.00 g
Fructose0.00 g
Glucose0.00 g
Galactose0.00 g
Disaccharides0.00 g
Lactose0.00 g
Maltose0.00 g
Sucrose0.00 g
Soluble Fiber0.00 g
Insoluble Fiber0.00 g
Other Carbohydrates1.72 g
Fat:
Monounsaturated Fat0.41 g
Polyunsaturated Fat0.67 g
Saturated Fat0.59 g
Trans Fat0.04 g
Calories from Fat17.35
Calories from Saturated Fat5.32
Calories from Trans Fat0.36
Cholesterol239.27 mg
Water81.15 g
MICRONUTRIENTS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
B-Complex Vitamins
Vitamin B10.04 mg3
Vitamin B20.03 mg2
Vitamin B33.04 mg19
Vitamin B3 (Niacin Equivalents)7.66 mg
Vitamin B60.27 mg16
Vitamin B121.88 mcg78
Biotin-- mcg--
Choline153.54 mg36
Folate27.22 mcg7
Folate (DFE)27.22 mcg
Folate (food)27.22 mcg
Pantothenic Acid0.59 mg12
Vitamin C0.00 mg0
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A (Retinoids and Carotenoids)
Vitamin A International Units (IU)341.33 IU
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE)102.06 mcg (RAE)11
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)0.00 mcg (RE)
Retinol mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)102.06 mcg (RE)
Carotenoid mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)102.06 mcg (RE)
Alpha-Carotene0.00 mcg
Beta-Carotene0.00 mcg
Beta-Carotene Equivalents0.00 mcg
Cryptoxanthin0.00 mcg
Lutein and Zeaxanthin0.00 mcg
Lycopene0.00 mcg
Vitamin D
Vitamin D International Units (IU)4.54 IU1
Vitamin D mcg0.11 mcg
Vitamin E
Vitamin E mg Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE)2.49 mg (ATE)17
Vitamin E International Units (IU)3.72 IU
Vitamin E mg2.49 mg
Vitamin K0.45 mcg1
Minerals
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Boron-- mcg
Calcium103.19 mg10
Chloride-- mg
Chromium-- mcg--
Copper0.29 mg32
Fluoride-- mg--
Iodine46.00 mcg31
Iron0.36 mg2
Magnesium41.96 mg10
Manganese0.06 mg3
Molybdenum-- mcg--
Phosphorus347.00 mg50
Potassium192.78 mg6
Selenium56.13 mcg102
Sodium1073.88 mg72
Zinc1.85 mg17
INDIVIDUAL FATTY ACIDS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids0.34 g14
Omega-6 Fatty Acids0.29 g
Monounsaturated Fats
14:1 Myristoleic0.00 g
15:1 Pentadecenoic0.00 g
16:1 Palmitol0.05 g
17:1 Heptadecenoic0.10 g
18:1 Oleic0.25 g
20:1 Eicosenoic0.01 g
22:1 Erucic0.00 g
24:1 Nervonic0.00 g
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
18:2 Linoleic0.22 g
18:2 Conjugated Linoleic (CLA)-- g
18:3 Linolenic0.01 g
18:4 Stearidonic-- g
20:3 Eicosatrienoic0.01 g
20:4 Arachidonic0.08 g
20:5 Eicosapentaenoic (EPA)0.15 g
22:5 Docosapentaenoic (DPA)0.01 g
22:6 Docosahexaenoic (DHA)0.16 g
Saturated Fatty Acids
4:0 Butyric0.00 g
6:0 Caproic0.00 g
8:0 Caprylic0.00 g
10:0 Capric0.00 g
12:0 Lauric0.01 g
14:0 Myristic0.02 g
15:0 Pentadecanoic0.02 g
16:0 Palmitic0.32 g
17:0 Margaric0.03 g
18:0 Stearic0.18 g
20:0 Arachidic0.00 g
22:0 Behenate0.00 g
24:0 Lignoceric0.01 g
INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Alanine1.50 g
Arginine2.40 g
Aspartic Acid2.71 g
Cysteine0.29 g
Glutamic Acid4.27 g
Glycine1.43 g
Histidine0.53 g
Isoleucine1.12 g
Leucine2.08 g
Lysine2.32 g
Methionine0.71 g
Phenylalanine1.06 g
Proline1.12 g
Serine0.99 g
Threonine0.96 g
Tryptophan0.28 g
Tyrosine0.92 g
Valine1.14 g
OTHER COMPONENTS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Ash3.53 g
Organic Acids (Total)0.00 g
Acetic Acid0.00 g
Citric Acid0.00 g
Lactic Acid0.00 g
Malic Acid0.00 g
Taurine-- g
Sugar Alcohols (Total)0.00 g
Glycerol0.00 g
Inositol0.00 g
Mannitol0.00 g
Sorbitol0.00 g
Xylitol0.00 g
Artificial Sweeteners (Total)-- mg
Aspartame-- mg
Saccharin-- mg
Alcohol0.00 g
Caffeine0.00 mg

Note:

The nutrient profiles provided in this website are derived from The Food Processor, Version 10.12.0, ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon, USA. Among the 50,000+ food items in the master database and 163 nutritional components per item, specific nutrient values were frequently missing from any particular food item. We chose the designation "--" to represent those nutrients for which no value was included in this version of the database.

References

  • Ayuso R, Sanchez-Garcia S, Lin J et al. Greater epitope recognition of shrimp allergens by children than by adults suggests that shrimp sensitization decreases with age. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Volume 125, Issue 6, June 2010, Pages 1286-1293.
  • Bono G, Gai F, Peiretti PG et al. Chemical and nutritional characterisation of the Central Mediterranean Giant red shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea): Influence of trophic and geographical factors on flesh quality. Food Chemistry, Volume 130, Issue 1, 1 January 2012, Pages 104-110. Bugel SH, Sandstrom B and Larsen EH. Absorption and retention of selenium from shrimps in man. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 14, Issue 4, April 2001, Pages 198-204.
  • Cudennec B, Ravallec-Ple R, Courois E et al. Peptides from fish and crustacean by-products hydrolysates stimulate cholecystokinin release in STC-1 cells. Food Chemistry, Volume 111, Issue 4, 15 December 2008, Pages 970-975.
  • Fillos D, Scott LL, De Sylor MA et al. PCB concentrations in shrimp from major import markets and the United States. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012, May; 31(5):1063-71.
  • Larsen R, Eilertsen KE, and Elvevoll EO. Health benefits of marine foods and ingredients. Biotechnology Advances, Volume 29, Issue 5, September-October 2011, Pages 508-518.
  • Mahaffey KR, Clickner RP and Jeffries RA. Methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids: Co-occurrence of dietary sources with emphasis on fish and shellfish. Environmental Research, Volume 107, Issue 1, May 2008, Pages 20-29.
  • Mezzomo N, Tenfen L, Farias MS, et al. Evidence of anti-obesity and mixed hypolipidemic effects of extracts from pink shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis and Penaeus paulensis) processing residue. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, Volume 96, January 2015, Pages 252-261.
  • Olmedo P, Hernandez AF, Pla A, et al. Determination of essential elements (copper, manganese, selenium and zinc) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk and nutritional assessment and mercury—selenium balance. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 62, December 2013, Pages 299-307.
  • Otton R, Marin DP, Bolin AP et al. Astaxanthin ameliorates the redox imbalance in lymphocytes of experimental diabetic rats. Chemico-Biological Interactions, Volume 186, Issue 3, 5 August 2010, Pages 306-315.
  • Sila A, Ghlissi Z, Kamoun Z, et al. Astaxanthin from shrimp by-products ameliorates nephropathy in diabetic rats. Eur J Nutr. 2014 May 13. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Smith KL and Guentzel JL. Mercury concentrations and omega-3 fatty acids in fish and shrimp: Preferential consumption for maximum health benefits. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 60, Issue 9, September 2010, Pages 1615-1618.
  • Stentiford GD, Neil DM, Peeler EJ at el. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Volume 110, Issue 2, June 2012, Pages 141-157.
  • Tsape K, Sinanoglou VJ and Miniadis-Meimaroglou S. Comparative analysis of the fatty acid and sterol profiles of widely consumed Mediterranean crustacean species. Food Chemistry, Volume 122, Issue 1, 1 September 2010, Pages 292-299.
  • Wilson-Sanchez G, Moreno-Felix C, Velazquez C, et al. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).
  • Marione Drugs. 2010; 8(11): 2795—2809.
  • Yanar Y, Celik M and Yanar M. Seasonal changes in total carotenoid contents of wild marine shrimps (Penaeus semisulcatus and Metapenaeus monoceros) inhabiting the eastern Mediterranean. Food Chemistry, Volume 88, Issue 2, November 2004, Pages 267-269.
  • Yang AC, Arruda LK, Santos ABR et al. Measurement of IgE antibodies to shrimp tropomyosin is superior to skin prick testing with commercial extract and measurement of IgE to shrimp for predicting clinically relevant allergic reactions after shrimp ingestion. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Volume 125, Issue 4, April 2010, Pages 872-878.
  • Yasui Y, Hosokawa M, Mikami N et al. Dietary astaxanthin inhibits colitis and colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice via modulation of the inflammatory cytokines. Chemico-Biological Interactions, Volume 193, Issue 1, 15 August 2011, Pages 79-87.

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